23 Maggio 2019
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Diagnostic
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What is

For radiography can be understood the radiographic image , or radiogram , or the radiographic technique used to obtain the same radiogram . The science is called on radiology.

How it works

This technique is based on the interaction between a beam of photons ( X-rays) direct from a source to a receptor , and the material interposed , usually a biological body . The atoms of that body to prevent interfering photon reaching the detector , which then reproduce a faithful image of the body "negative" , being imprinted on the film instead of the photons that are not absorbed .

When you need

The main use of radiography is in the medical field as a diagnostic tool , but it´s also used in industrial applications , for example in non-destructive testing of materials.


Technique


To obtain X-ray images of a precise anatomical medical radiology technician will place the patient on a special x-ray table or on a screen. X-rays are ionizing radiation invisible that give no sensation when they pass through the body. The X-ray beam to its passage penetrates the human body and is absorbed differently according to the different anatomical parts encountered and exits attenuated before it reaches the detection system ,

Until a few decades ago, this was generally consists of a photographic film bonded to an intensifying screen, able to impress the X-rays that passed through the patient´s body . Nowadays, with the advent of digital radiography , the film has been replaced by X-ray cassettes containing Photostimulable substances that will then be read by the appropriate reader on the computer that will display the image obtained . In more modern systems , an array of scintillators and CCD are able to acquire images directly .

Once the technician has all the x-rays produced in the various projections required by the type of examination , the images will be sent ( in modern systems through the PACS system ) to the radiologist who will report to .

The x-ray is especially important in an emergency and used as a method is quick, easy and relatively inexpensive and is extremely clear and detailed in the study of diseases.


Medical diagnostics

Nowadays, the main field of use of radiography is medical diagnosis. One of the most common examinations is the study of the skeletal system , which due to it´s density has a very clear image. Its use in orthopedics is common for the diagnosis of bone fractures , dislocations , osteoarthritis and post-operative monitoring of pathologies of the spine such as spondylolisthesis , spondylosis , scoliosis .

The chest radiograph is widely used for the examination of the lung fields (for research , for example, tumors , results of bronchopneumonia , pneumothorax , pleural effusions ) and mediastinal structures such as the heart and the aortic arch.

Although the abdominal organs are studied with X-ray , often making use of contrast agents to enhance the image of the organ to be examined. The digestive system is generally studied by taking a solution of barium sulphate ( or sometimes of iodine solutions ) orally ( in the study of the esophagus and stomach ) or rectally for the study of the large intestine ( barium enema ) . The urinary tract is often studied by administering intravenously a contrast medium containing iodine which , at different times, opacify the kidneys , ureters, bladder and urethra .
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